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Posted by Stephen thangaraj at 00:24

Rare  interview Questions in php


How can we change the data type of a column of a table?
This will change the data type of a column:
ALTER TABLE table_name CHANGE colm_name same_colm_name [new data type]

What is the difference between GROUP BY and ORDER BY in SQL?
To sort a result, use an ORDER BY clause.
The most general way to satisfy a GROUP BY clause is to scan the whole table and create a new temporary table where all rows from each group are consecutive, and then use this temporary table to discover groups and apply aggregate functions (if any).

ORDER BY [col1],[col2],…[coln]; Tells DBMS according to what columns it should sort the result. If two rows will have the same value in col1 it will try to sort them according to col2 and so on.

GROUP BY [col1],[col2],…[coln]; Tells DBMS to group (aggregate) results with same value of column col1. You can use COUNT(col1), SUM(col1), AVG(col1) with it, if you want to count all items in group, sum all values or view average.What is meant by MIME?

Answer 1:
MIME is Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions is an Internet standard for the format of e-mail. However browsers also uses MIME standard to transmit files. MIME has a header which is added to a beginning of the data. When browser sees such header it shows the data as it would be a file (for example image)

Some examples of MIME types:
audio/x-ms-wmp
image/png
application/x-shockwave-flash

Answer 2:
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.
WWW’s ability to recognize and handle files of different types is largely dependent on the use of the MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) standard. The standard provides for a system of registration of file types with information about the applications needed to process them. This information is incorporated into Web server and browser software, and enables the automatic recognition and display of registered file types. …


How can we know that a session is started or not?
A session starts by session_start() function.
This session_start() is always declared in header portion. it always declares first. then we write session_register().What are the differences between mysql_fetch_array(), mysql_fetch_object(), mysql_fetch_row()?

Answer 1:
mysql_fetch_array() -> Fetch a result row as a combination of associative array and regular array.mysql_fetch_object() -> Fetch a result row as an object.
mysql_fetch_row() -> Fetch a result set as a regular array().

Answer 2:
The difference between mysql_fetch_row() and mysql_fetch_array() is that the first returns the results in a numeric array ($row[0], $row[1], etc.), while the latter returns a the results an array containing both numeric and associative keys ($row['name'], $row['email'], etc.). mysql_fetch_object() returns an object ($row->name, $row->email, etc.).

If we login more than one browser windows at the same time with same user and after that we close one window, then is the session is exist to other windows or not? And if yes then why? If no then why?
Session depends on browser. If browser is closed then session is lost. The session data will be deleted after session time out. If connection is lost and you recreate connection, then session will continue in the browser.


What are the MySQL database files stored in system ?
Data is stored in name.myd
Table structure is stored in name.frm
Index is stored in name.myi

What is the difference between PHP4 and PHP5?
PHP4 cannot support oops concepts and Zend engine 1 is used.
PHP5 supports oops concepts and Zend engine 2 is used.
Error supporting is increased in PHP5.
XML and SQLLite will is increased in PHP5.

Can we use include(abc.PHP) two times in a PHP page makeit.PHP”?
Yes we can include that many times we want, but here are some things to make sure of:
 (including abc.PHP, the file names are case-sensitive)
there shouldn’t be any duplicate function names, means there should not be functions or classes or variables with the same name in abc.PHP and makeit.php

What are the differences between mysql_fetch_array(), mysql_fetch_object(), mysql_fetch_row()?
mysql_fetch_array – Fetch a result row as an associative array and a numeric array.

mysql_fetch_object – Returns an object with properties that correspond to the fetched row and moves the internal data pointer ahead. Returns an object with properties that correspond to the fetched row, or FALSE if there are no more rows
mysql_fetch_row() – Fetches one row of data from the result associated with the specified result identifier. The row is returned as an array. Each result column is stored in an array offset, starting at offset 0.What is meant by nl2br()?
Anwser1:
nl2br() inserts a HTML tag <br> before all new line characters \n in a string.
echo nl2br(“god bless \n you”);

output:
god bless<br>you

How can we encrypt and decrypt a data presented in a table using MySQL?
You can use functions: AES_ENCRYPT() and AES_DECRYPT() like:
AES_ENCRYPT(str, key_str)
AES_DECRYPT(crypt_str, key_str)


How can I retrieve values from one database server and store them in other database server using PHP?
For this purpose, you can first read the data from one server into session variables. Then connect to other server and simply insert the data into the database.

Who is the father of PHP and what is the current version of PHP and MYSQL?
Rasmus Lerdorf.
PHP 5.1. Beta
MySQL 5.0

In how many ways we can retrieve data in the result set of MYSQL using PHP?
mysql_fetch_array – Fetch a result row as an associative array, a numeric array, or both
mysql_fetch_assoc – Fetch a result row as an associative arraymysql_fetch_object – Fetch a result row as an object
mysql_fetch_row —- Get a result row as an enumerated arrayWhat are the functions for IMAP?
imap_body – Read the message body
imap_check – Check current mailbox
imap_delete – Mark a message for deletion from current mailbox
imap_mail – Send an email message

What are encryption functions in PHP?
CRYPT()

MD5()What is the difference between htmlentities() and htmlspecialchars()?

htmlspecialchars() – Convert some special characters to HTML entities (Only the most widely used)

htmlentities() – Convert ALL special characters to HTML entitiesWhat is the functionality of the function htmlentities?

htmlentities() – Convert all applicable characters to HTML entities

This function is identical to htmlspecialchars() in all ways, except with htmlentities(), all characters which have HTML character entity equivalents are translated into these entities.

How can we get the properties (size, type, width, height) of an image using php image functions?

To know the image size use getimagesize() function

To know the image width use imagesx() function

To know the image height use imagesy() function

How can we increase the execution time of a php script?

By the use of void set_time_limit(int seconds)

Set the number of seconds a script is allowed to run. If this is reached, the script returns a fatal error. The default limit is 30 seconds or, if it exists, the max_execution_time value defined in the php.ini. If seconds is set to zero, no time limit is imposed.

When called, set_time_limit() restarts the timeout counter from zero. In other words, if the timeout is the default 30 seconds, and 25 seconds into script execution a call such as set_time_limit(20) is made, the script will run for a total of 45 seconds before timing out.HOW CAN WE TAKE A BACKUP OF A MYSQL TABLE AND HOW CAN WE RESTORE IT?

Answer 1:

Create a full backup of your database: shell> mysqldump tab=/path/to/some/dir opt db_name

Or: shell> mysqlhotcopy db_name /path/to/some/dir

The full backup file is just a set of SQL statements, so restoring it is very easy:

shell> mysql “.”Executed”;

Answer 2:

To backup: BACKUP TABLE tbl_name TO /path/to/backup/directory

’ To restore: RESTORE TABLE tbl_name FROM /path/to/backup/directory

mysqldump: Dumping Table Structure and Data

Utility to dump a database or a collection of database for backup or for transferring the data to another SQL server (not necessarily a MySQL server). The dump will contain SQL statements to create the table and/or populate the table.

-t, no-create-info

Don’t write table creation information (the CREATE TABLE statement).

-d, no-data

Don’t write any row information for the table. This is very useful if you just want to get a dump of the structure for a table!How to set cookies?

setcookie(‘variable’,'value’,'time’)

;

variable – name of the cookie variable

value – value of the cookie variable

time – expiry time

Example: setcookie(‘Test’,$i,time()+3600);

Test – cookie variable name

$i – value of the variable ‘Test’

time()+3600 – denotes that the cookie will expire after an one hourHow to reset/destroy a cookie ?

Reset a cookie by specifying expire time in the past:

Example: setcookie(‘Test’,$i,time()-3600); // already expired time

Reset a cookie by specifying its name only

Example: setcookie(‘Test’);What types of images that PHP supports ?

Using imagetypes() function to find out what types of images are supported in your PHP engine.imagetypes() – Returns the image types supported.

This function returns a bit-field corresponding to the image formats supported by the version of GD linked into PHP. The following bits are returned, IMG_GIF | IMG_JPG | IMG_PNG | IMG_WBMP | IMG_XPM.Check if a variable is an integer in JAVASCRIPT ?

var myValue =9.8;

if(parseInt(myValue)== myValue)

alert(‘Integer’);

else

alert(‘Not an integer’);


Tools used for drawing ER diagrams.Case StudioSmart Draw How can I know that a variable is a number or not using a JavaScript?

Answer 1:

bool is_numeric( mixed var)

Returns TRUE if var is a number or a numeric string, FALSE otherwise.

Answer 2:

Definition and Usage

The isNaN() function is used to check if a value is not a number.

Syntax

isNaN(number)

Parameter Description

number Required. The value to be testedHow can we submit from without a submit button?

Trigger the JavaScript code on any event ( like onSelect of drop down list box, onfocus, etc ) document.myform.submit(); This will submit the form.


How many ways can we get the value of current session id?
session_id() returns the session id for the current session.How can we destroy the cookie?
Set the cookie with a past expiration time.What are the current versions of Apache, PHP, and MySQL?
PHP: PHP 5.2.5
MySQL: MySQL 5.1

Apache: Apache 2.1

What are the reasons for selecting LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, Php) instead of combination of other software programs, servers and operating systems?
All of those are open source resource. Security of Linux is very more than windows. Apache is a better server that IIS both in functionality and security. Mysql is world most popular open source database. Php is more faster that asp or any other scripting language.

What are the features and advantages of OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING?
One of the main advantages of OO programming is its ease of modification; objects can easily be modified and added to a system there by reducing maintenance costs. OO programming is also considered to be better at modeling the real world than is procedural programming. It allows for more complicated and flexible interactions. OO systems are also easier for non-technical personnel to understand and easier for them to participate in the maintenance and enhancement of a system because it appeals to natural human cognition patterns. For some systems, an OO approach can speed development time since many objects are standard across systems and can be reused. Components that manage dates, shipping, shopping carts, etc. can be purchased and easily modified for a specific system.

How can we get second of the current time using date function?
$second = date(“s”);

What is the use of friend function?
Friend functions
Sometimes a function is best shared among a number of different classes. Such functions can be declared either as member functions of one class or as global functions. In either case they can be set to be friends of other classes, by using a friend specifier in the class that is admitting them. Such functions can use all attributes of the class which names them as a friend, as if they were themselves members of that class. A friend declaration is essentially a prototype for a member function, but instead of requiring an implementation with the name of that class attached by the double colon syntax, a global function or member function of another class provides the match.class mylinkage

{

private:

mylinkage * prev;

mylinkage * next;

protected:

friend void set_prev(mylinkage* L, mylinkage* N);

void set_next(mylinkage* L);

public:

mylinkage * succ();

mylinkage * pred();

mylinkage();

};

void mylinkage::set_next(mylinkage* L) { next = L; }

void set_prev(mylinkage * L, mylinkage * N ) { N->prev = L; }

Friends in other classes

It is possible to specify a member function of another class as a friend as follows:

class C

{

friend int B::f1();

};

class B

{

int f1();

};

It is also possible to specify all the functions in another class as friends, by specifying the entire class as a friend.

class A

{

friend class B;

};

Friend functions allow binary operators to be defined which combine private data in a pair of objects. This is particularly powerful when using the operator overloading features of C++. We will return to it when we look at overloading.How can we get second of the current time using date function?

$second = date(“s”);

What is the maximum size of a file that can be uploaded using PHP and how can we change this?
You can change maximum size of a file set upload_max_filesize variable in php.ini file.

How can I make a script that can be bilingual (supports English, German)?
You can change char set variable in above line in the script to support bi language.

What are the difference between abstract class and interface?
Abstract class: abstract classes are the class where one or more methods are abstract but not necessarily all method has to be abstract. Abstract methods are the methods, which are declare in its class but not define. The definition of those methods must be in its extending class.

Interface: Interfaces are one type of class where all the methods are abstract. That means all the methods only declared but not defined. All the methods must be define by its implemented class.

What are the advantages of stored procedures, triggers, indexes?
A stored procedure is a set of SQL commands that can be compiled and stored in the server. Once this has been done, clients don’t need to keep re-issuing the entire query but can refer to the stored procedure. This provides better overall performance because the query has to be parsed only once, and less information needs to be sent between the server and the client. You can also raise the conceptual level by having libraries of functions in the server. However, stored procedures of course do increase the load on the database server system, as more of the work is done on the server side and less on the client (application) side. Triggers will also be implemented. A trigger is effectively a type of stored procedure, one that is invoked when a particular event occurs. For example, you can install a stored procedure that is triggered each time a record is deleted from a transaction table and that stored procedure automatically deletes the corresponding customer from a customer table when all his transactions are deleted. Indexes are used to find rows with specific column values quickly. Without an index, MySQL must begin with the first row and then read through the entire table to find the relevant rows. The larger the table, the more this costs. If the table has an index for the columns in question, MySQL can quickly determine the position to seek to in the middle of the data file without having to look at all the data. If a table has 1,000 rows, this is at least 100 times faster than reading sequentially. If you need to access most of the rows, it is faster to read sequentially, because this minimizes disk seeks.



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