PHP quiz in Depth

Posted by Stephen thangaraj at 00:30


What is maximum size of a database in mysql?
If the operating system or filesystem places a limit on the number of files in a directory, MySQL is bound by that constraint. The efficiency of the operating system in handling large numbers of files in a directory can place a practical limit on the number of tables in a database. If the time required to open a file in the directory increases significantly as the number of files increases, database performance can be adversely affected.
The amount of available disk space limits the number of tables.
MySQL 3.22 had a 4GB (4 gigabyte) limit on table size. With the MyISAM storage engine in MySQL 3.23, the maximum table size was increased to 65536 terabytes (2567 – 1 bytes). With this larger allowed table size, the maximum effective table size for MySQL databases is usually determined by operating system constraints on file sizes, not by MySQL internal limits.


The InnoDB storage engine maintains InnoDB tables within a tablespace that can be created from several files. This allows a table to exceed the maximum individual file size. The tablespace can include raw disk partitions, which allows extremely large tables. The maximum tablespace size is 64TB.

The following table lists some examples of operating system file-size limits. This is only a rough guide and is not intended to be definitive. For the most up-to-date information, be sure to check the documentation specific to your operating system.

Operating System File-size Limit

Linux 2.2-Intel 32-bit 2GB (LFS: 4GB)

Linux 2.4+ (using ext3 filesystem) 4TB

Solaris 9/10 16TB

NetWare w/NSS filesystem 8TB

Win32 w/ FAT/FAT32 2GB/4GB

Win32 w/ NTFS 2TB (possibly larger)

MacOS X w/ HFS+ 2TBExplain normalization concept?

The normalization process involves getting our data to conform to three progressive normal forms, and a higher level of normalization cannot be achieved until the previous levels have been achieved (there are actually five normal forms, but the last two are mainly academic and will not be discussed).

First Normal Form

The First Normal Form (or 1NF) involves removal of redundant data from horizontal rows. We want to ensure that there is no duplication of data in a given row, and that every column stores the least amount of information possible (making the field atomic).

Second Normal Form

Where the First Normal Form deals with redundancy of data across a horizontal row, Second Normal Form (or 2NF) deals with redundancy of data in vertical columns. As stated earlier, the normal forms are progressive, so to achieve Second Normal Form, your tables must already be in First Normal Form.

Third Normal Form

I have a confession to make; I do not often use Third Normal Form. In Third Normal Form we are looking for data in our tables that is not fully dependant on the primary key, but dependant on another value in the table

What’s the difference between accessing a class method via -> and via ::?

:: is allowed to access methods that can perform static operations, i.e. those, which do not require object initialization.What are the advantages and disadvantages of CASCADE STYLE SHEETS?

External Style Sheets

Advantages

Can control styles for multiple documents at once Classes can be created for use on multiple HTML element types in many documents Selector and grouping methods can be used to apply styles under complex contexts

Disadvantages

An extra download is required to import style information for each document The rendering of the document may be delayed until the external style sheet is loaded Becomes slightly unwieldy for small quantities of style definitions

Embedded Style Sheets

Advantages

Classes can be created for use on multiple tag types in the document Selector and grouping methods can be used to apply styles under complex contexts No additional downloads necessary to receive style information

Disadvantage

This method can not control styles for multiple documents at once

Inline Styles

Advantages

Useful for small quantities of style definitions Can override other style specification methods at the local level so only exceptions need to be listed in conjunction with other style methods

Disadvantages

Does not distance style information from content (a main goal of SGML/HTML) Can not control styles for multiple documents at once Author can not create or control classes of elements to control multiple element types within the document Selector grouping methods can not be used to create complex element addressing scenarios


What type of inheritance that php supports?
In PHP an extended class is always dependent on a single base class, that is, multiple inheritance is not supported. Classes are extended using the keyword ‘extends’.How can increase the performance of MySQL select query?

We can use LIMIT to stop MySql for further search in table after we have received our required no. of records, also we can use LEFT JOIN or RIGHT JOIN instead of full join in cases we have related data in two or more tables.

How can we change the name of a column of a table?
MySQL query to rename table: RENAME TABLE tbl_name TO new_tbl_nameALTER TABLE tableName CHANGE OldName newName.

When you want to show some part of a text displayed on an HTML page in red font color? What different possibilities are there to do this? What are the advantages/disadvantages of these methods?
There are 2 ways to show some part of a text in red:
1. Using HTML tag <font color=”red”>

2. Using HTML tag <span style=”color: red”>When viewing an HTML page in a Browser, the Browser often keeps this page in its cache.

What can be possible advantages/disadvantages of page caching? How can you prevent caching of a certain page (please give several alternate solutions)?

When you use the metatag in the header section at the beginning of an HTML Web page, the Web page may still be cached in the Temporary Internet Files folder.

A page that Internet Explorer is browsing is not cached until half of the 64 KB buffer is filled. Usually, metatags are inserted in the header section of an HTML document, which appears at the beginning of the document. When the HTML code is parsed, it is read from top to bottom. When the metatag is read, Internet Explorer looks for the existence of the page in cache at that exact moment. If it is there, it is removed. To properly prevent the Web page from appearing in the cache, place another header section at the end of the HTML document.

What are the different ways to login to a remote server? Explain the means, advantages and disadvantages?
There is at least 3 ways to logon to a remote server:
Use ssh or telnet if you concern with security
You can also use rlogin to logon to a remote server.Please give a regular expression (preferably Perl/PREG style), which can be used to identify the URL from within a HTML link tag.
Try this: /href=”([^"]*)”/iHow can I use the COM components in php?
The COM class provides a framework to integrate (D)COM components into your PHP scripts.
string COM::COM( string module_name [, string server_name [, int codepage]]) – COM class constructor.
Parameters:
module_name: name or class-id of the requested component.
server_name: name of the DCOM server from which the component should be fetched. If NULL, localhost is assumed. To allow DCOM com, allow_dcom has to be set to TRUE in php.ini.
codepage – specifies the codepage that is used to convert php-strings to unicode-strings and vice versa. Possible values are CP_ACP, CP_MACCP, CP_OEMCP, CP_SYMBOL, CP_THREAD_ACP, CP_UTF7 and CP_UTF8.

Usage:

$word->Visible = 1; //open an empty document

$word->Documents->Add(); //do some weird stuff

$word->Selection->TypeText(“This is a test…”);

$word->Documents[1]->SaveAs(“Useless test.doc”); //closing word

$word->Quit(); //free the object

$word->Release();

$word = null;How many ways we can give the output to a browser?

HTML output

PHP, ASP, JSP, Servlet Function

Script Language output Function

Different Type of embedded Package to output to a browser

What is the default session time in php and how can I change it?

The default session time in php is until closing of browser

What changes I have to do in php.ini file for file uploading?

Make the following line uncomment like:

; Whether to allow HTTP file uploads.

file_uploads = On

; Temporary directory for HTTP uploaded files (will use system default if not

; specified).

upload_tmp_dir = C:\apache2triad\temp

; Maximum allowed size for uploaded files.

upload_max_filesize = 2MHow can I set a cron and how can I execute it in Unix, Linux, and windows?

Cron is very simply a Linux module that allows you to run commands at predetermined times or intervals. In Windows, it’s called Scheduled Tasks. The name Cron is in fact derived from the same word from which we get the word chronology, which means order of time.

The easiest way to use crontab is via the crontab command.# crontabThis command ‘edits’ the crontab. Upon employing this command, you will be able to enter the commands that you wish to run. My version of

Linux uses the text editor vi. You can find information on using vi here.

The syntax of this file is very important – if you get it wrong, your crontab will not function properly. The syntax of the file should be as follows:

minutes hours day_of_month month day_of_week command

All the variables, with the exception of the command itself, are numerical constants. In addition to an asterisk (*), which is a wildcard that allows any value, the ranges permitted for each field are as follows:

Minutes: 0-59

Hours: 0-23

Day_of_month: 1-31

Month: 1-12

Weekday: 0-6

We can also include multiple values for each entry, simply by separating each value with a comma.

command can be any shell command and, as we will see momentarily, can also be used to execute a Web document such as a PHP file.

So, if we want to run a script every Tuesday morning at 8:15 AM, our mycronjob file will contain the following content on a single line:

15 8 * * 2 /path/to/scriptname

This all seems simple enough, right? Not so fast! If you try to run a PHP script in this manner, nothing will happen (barring very special configurations that have PHP compiled as an executable, as opposed to an Apache module). The reason is that, in order for PHP to be parsed, it needs to be passed through Apache. In other words, the page needs to be called via a browser or other means of retrieving

Web content. For our purposes, I’ll assume that your server configuration includes wget, as is the case with most default configurations. To test your configuration, log in to shell. If you’re using an RPM-based system (e.g. Redhat or Mandrake), type the following:

# wget help

If you are greeted with a wget package identification, it is installed in your system.

You could execute the PHP by invoking wget on the URL to the page, like so:

# wget http://www.example.com/file.php

Now, let’s go back to the mailstock.php file we created in the first part of this article. We saved it in our document root, so it should be accessible via the Internet. Remember that we wanted it to run at 4PM Eastern time, and send you your precious closing bell report? Since I’m located in the Eastern timezone, we can go ahead and set up our crontab to use 4:00, but if you live elsewhere, you might have to compensate for the time difference when setting this value.

This is what my crontab will look like:

0 4 * * 1,2,3,4,5 we get http://www.example.com/mailstock.phpSteps for the payment gateway processing?

An online payment gateway is the interface between your merchant account and your Web site. The online payment gateway allows you to immediately verify credit card transactions and authorize funds on a customer’s credit card directly from your Web site. It then passes the transaction off to your merchant bank for processing, commonly referred to as transaction batching

How many ways I can redirect a PHP page?
Here are the possible ways of php page redirection.
1. Using Java script:

‘; echo ‘window.location.href=”‘.$filename.’”;’; echo ”; echo ”; echo ”; echo ”; } } redirect(‘http://maosjb.com’); ?>


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